Turner Syndrome vs. Klinefelter Syndrome

The main difference between Klinefelter and Turner syndrome is that Klinefelter is a condition of trisomy in which one extra X chromosome is present in the genome of the person and Turner syndrome is a condition of monosomy in which one X chromosome is lacking in the genome of the affected person.

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Klinefelter Syndrome vs. Turner Syndrome

There are many differences between Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome although both are genetic disorders. In Turner syndrome, the apparent phenotype of the affected individual is of the female while in Klinefelter syndrome, the appearance resembles a male.

In Klinefelter syndrome, hypogonadism in the males occurs, i.e., the gonads of the male are not structurally and functionally fully developed while in Turner syndrome, dysgenesis of the female gonads occurs, i.e., ovaries of such female are not fully developed.

Klinefelter syndrome is a condition of trisomy in which the sex chromosomes of the affected individual has one extra X chromosome, i.e., XXY while the Turner syndrome is a condition of monosomy, i.e., the affected individual is genetically a female with one X minus having X0 chromosomal sequence of sex chromosomes. Klinefelter syndrome occurs in 1 in 1100 newborn male babies while Turner syndrome occurs in 1 in 2500 newborn female babies.

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Features of Turner syndrome are, the female is short stature with webbed neck, underdeveloped breasts, uterus, vulva or vagina may be present, but ovaries are not developed, so primary amenorrhea occurs, associated dysfunctions are hearing impairment, cardiovascular dysfunctions, and other congenital anomalies. The phenotype is of females.

Features of Klinefelter syndrome are, the male is sterile, testes are absent or less developed, so testosterone hormone is not produced and secondary male sex characteristics are not developed. Male sex organs are not developed like vas deference, penis, and seminal vesicle. Due to the presence of one extra X chromosome, secondary female sex characters may develop like enlarged breasts and female like high pitched voice. Such persons physically appear as males, but they are very tall and have long limbs. In both Klinefelter and Turner syndrome, mental retardation does not occur.

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There is no definite treatment of Turner or Klinefelter syndrome but Klinefelter persons may be given testosterone hormonal therapy to aid for male characters, and turner females may be given estrogen therapy to aid for female characters.

Comparison chart

Basis Turner Syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome
Definition It is a condition of monosomy, in which one X chromosome is deleted from the normal pair of the sex chromosomes of the affected person, i.e., She is X0 instead of normal X.It is a condition of trisomy in which one extra chromosome is present in the sex chromosomal pair of the affected person, i.e., He is XXY instead of normal XY.
Phenotypical appearance The phenotype is of the female.The phenotype is of the male.
Major disorder Dysgenesis of the female gonads occurs, i.e., ovaries are absent or not fully developed.Hypogonadism of the male gonads occurs, i.e., testes are absent or not fully developed.
Incidence The incidence is of one in 2500 newborn female babies.The incidence is 1 in 1100 newborn male babies.
Gender Such a person is a female lacking the secondary sex characteristics of females.Such a person is male having the secondary sex characters of females.
Other characteristics The female is short stature, having webbed neck, shield-like breast, uvula, vagina or uterus may be present but ovaries are absent or underdeveloped, lacking female secondary sex characteristics, and associated cardiovascular, or hearing dysfunction may be present. Menstruation does not occur.The person is tall, having long limbs, underdeveloped or absent testes, lacking hormone testosterone production, sex organs are underdeveloped, enlarged breasts because of female hormone estrogen production and female like high pitched voice.
Treatment No definite treatment but estrogen therapy may be given to support female secondary sex characters.No definite treatment but testosterone therapy may be given to support male characters.

What is Turner Syndrome?

It is also a chromosomal disorder in which the affected person is phenotypically female but lacking one X chromosome in the sex chromosomal pain. Thus she has X0 sequence instead of normal XX. The total number of chromosomes in such females is 45 instead of normal 46. Due to a lack of one X chromosome, primary and secondary female sex characteristics are not fully developed. Such females are short stature, having webbed neck and shield like the breast.

Vagina, uterus, and vulva may be present, but ovaries are absent or underdeveloped. Due to the underdevelopment of ovaries, menstruation does not occur. Such females also have associated cardiovascular anomalies or hearing impairment.

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Turner Syndrome

Animated Video Explanation

What is Klinefelter Ssyndrome?

Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in which the affected person is genetically male, but he has one extra chromosome in the pair of sex chromosomes, having XXY sequence instead of normal XY pair. Thus it is a trisomy condition in which the person has 47 chromosomes in the nucleus instead of a normal number of 46. The physical appearance is of male type, but male secondary sex characteristics are not developed.

The male is tall having long limbs. Testes are not formed or underdeveloped, and that is why the testosterone hormone is not produced. Due to the presence of one extra X chromosome, female hormone estrogen production is enhanced, and that is the reason such males have female-like breasts. Their voice is high pitched resembling females. Mental retardation does not occur in this syndrome. The incidence of Klinefelter syndrome is 1 in 1100 live male births.

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Klinefelter Syndrome

Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Key Differences between Turner Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome

The Key Differences between Turner Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome between Turner Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome are given below:

  1. Klinefelter syndrome is a trisomy disorder in which one extra X chromosome is present in the sex chromosomal pair while Turner syndrome is a monosomy disorder in which one X chromosome is lacking.
  2. The Klinefelter person is phenotypically male, but the turner person is phenotypically female.
  3. The Klinefelter person has long height while the turner female is short stature with the webbed
  4. The associated cardiovascular anomalies are more in Turner syndrome than in Klinefelter
  5. The incidence of Klinefelter syndrome is 1 in 1100 while the incidence of Turner syndrome is 1 in 2500.

Conclusion

Both Klinefelter and Turner syndrome are chromosomal disorders. Since in both syndromes, the affected persons are transgender, so it is compulsive to know the differences between both syndromes. In the above article, we learned the clear differences between Klinefelter and Turner syndrome.

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