Mitosis vs. Binary Fission

The main difference between binary fission and mitosis is that binary fission is a way of the asexual type of reproduction in prokaryotes in which one organism divides to form two progeny organisms while mitosis is a process in which a eukaryotic cell divides to form two daughter cells which are identical.

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Mitosis vs. Binary Fission

There are two broadly classified methods of reproduction, i.e., sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. Binary fission is a way of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms mostly prokaryotes in which a single cell organism divides to form two single cell organisms. While mitosis is a kind of cell division in which a eukaryotic cell divides and form two daughter cells which are identical. It is a method of growth of multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

Binary fission occurs in prokaryotes only while mitosis occurs in eukaryotes only. Mitotic spindles are formed during the process of mitosis while not formed during binary fission. Binary fission is used for reproduction of the organisms while mitosis is used for growth.

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In binary fission, first the replication of genetic material occurs, and then the cytoplasmic division is carried out, a process known as cytokinesis. In mitosis, this is the sequence which is followed. First, the duplication of DNA takes place, and nucleus divides. This process is known as karyokinesis. Then the cytoplasmic division takes place which is known as cytokinesis.

There are four types of binary fission, i.e. simple binary fission, which is carried out by amoeba, transverse binary fission, in which the division is carried out along the transverse axis of the prokaryotic organism, longitudinal binary fission, in which the cell division is carried out along the longitudinal plane of the organism and oblique type of binary fission in which the cell division takes place obliquely. On the other hand, the mitosis process does not have further subtypes. Mitosis has certain phases which are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and then cytokinesis.

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Contents: Difference between Mitosis and Binary Fission

Comparison Chart

Basis Binary Fission Mitosis
Definition It is a process in which a single unicellular organism divides into two progeny organisms.It is a process in which one cell undergoes cell division and forms two daughter cells.
Takes place in It takes place only in unicellular prokaryotic organismsIt takes place in eukaryotic organisms
Mitotic spindles formation Mitotic spindles are not formed in this type of divisionMitotic spindles are formed in this type of cell division
DNA attachment DNA is attached with the plasma membrane before cell divisionDNA is attached with spindle apparatus before cell division
DNA duplication DNA duplication takes place at the time of division of the cellDuplication of DNA is carried out long before the division of the cell
Type of process It is a simple and rapidly occurring processIt is a very complex process requiring many checkpoints at different steps. Takes more time than binary fission.
Aims It is a method of asexual reproduction in unicellular prokaryotic organismsIt is a method of primary growth, healing and regeneration in animals and primary and secondary growth in plants.
Types and stages It is further subdivided into four types, i.e. simple binary fission which occurs in amoeba, longitudinal type, in which the cell division takes place along the longitudinal axis, transverse binary fission in which the cell divides itself in transverse plane and oblique type in which one cell is divided into two cells in an oblique plane.Mitosis is not further subdivided into different types but completes in five stages, i.e., prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase and then finally cytokinesis.
Sequence of division In this process, first the duplication of DNA happens, and then a division of cytoplasm is carried out which is known as cytokinesis.In this process, the same sequence is followed, i.e., first the duplication of DNA is carried out, then nucleus divides itself, and then the division of cytoplasm takes place.
Karyokinesis Karyokinesis does not take place because the nucleus is not present in prokaryotic organisms in which binary fission is carried out.Karyokinesis is an important step of mitosis. In this step, a single nucleus having two copies of DNA elongates, both the identical copies of DNA moves towards the opposite poles of nucleus exerting force in opposite directions and finally one nucleus is divided into two nuclei.

What is Binary Fission?

Binary fission is a process in which a prokaryotic unicellular organism divides to form two unicellular organisms. It is a method of asexual reproduction in prokaryotic organisms. It is also carried out by some protists and eukaryotic cellular organelles. Its primary aim is to reproduce the progeny organisms. It is a simple and rapidly occurring process. Mitotic spindles are not formed, and DNA is directly attached with the plasma membrane. The duplication of DNA and separation takes place at the same time in binary fission. It is not a very reliable process like mitosis. Sometimes the progeny organisms avail an unequal number of chromosomes.

What is Mitosis?

Mitosis is a kind of cell division in which a single cell undergoes division and produces two cells which are identical to each other and parent cell. It is a very complex process required various checkpoints at different stages in the form of enzymes which prevent and correct any mistake. It takes place only in eukaryotes. It is used for growth, regeneration, healing process and asexual reproduction of cells in the complex organisms. Spindle apparatus is made, and DNA is attached with spindle fibers for the division of the cell.  It is completed in different stages, i.e., prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.

During prophase, the cell gets ready itself for division and replication of DNA happens. During metaphase, DNA aligns itself in the equator. During anaphase, the chromosomes are separated and during telophase one nucleus is divided into two nuclei. During cytokinesis, cytoplasm is also divided

Key differences

  1. Binary fission is carried out by prokaryotic organisms while mitosis is carried out by eukaryotic organisms
  2. Binary fission is a mode of asexual reproduction while mitosis is a method of primary and secondary growth, healing, regeneration and also asexual reproduction.
  3. Binary fission is a simple process while mitosis is a long and complex process
  4. Spindle apparatus is not made in binary fission while it is made in mitosis
  5. In binary fission, duplication of DNA and cell division takes place at the same time while in mitosis, duplication of DNA is carried out long before the division of the cell.
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Conclusion

Both mitosis and mitosis are the types of cell division. It is important for biology students to know the differences between them. In the above article, we came to know the clear differences between mitosis and binary fission.

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