Metaphase 1 vs. Metaphase 2

The separation of different types of chromosomes creates the difference between metaphase 1 and metaphase 2. The difference between metaphase 1 and metaphase 2 is that metaphase 1 has the same number of chromosomes as the original cells, whereas, metaphase 1 of meiosis has half the number of chromosomes.

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Metaphase 1 vs. Metaphase 2

Comparison Chart

Basis of Distinction Metaphase 1 Metaphase 2
Definition Metaphase 1 is the next state to prophase 1 when prophase 1 crossing over gets accomplished, and tetrads move towards a plan known as metaphase plate. Stage where bivalents arranged on the metaphase plate and linked to the fully established meiotic spindle
Chromosomes Position The spindle fibers bring chromosomes chromatid becomes chromosomes after separation of spindle fibers
Number of Chromosomes Each pole receives half the number of chromosomes Also, have the same number of chromosomes but with a single chromatid
Bivalent Repletion Two members of each bivalent repel each other and move towards the opposite poles Centromere divides and two chromatids of each chromosome separate and move towards the poles
Name Reason Metaphase 1 stage found in meiosis 1 stage that’s why known as metaphase 1 Metaphase 2 found in meiosis 1 that’s why known as metaphase 2.
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What is Metaphase 1?

Metaphase 1 is the next state to prophase 1 when prophase 1 crossing over gets accomplished, and tetrads move towards a plan known as metaphase plate. This metaphase plate is located between two poles of the cell. Here the spindle fibers are linked to the centromeres of each of the bivalents, and both kinetochores of each sister chromatid pair are then shifted toward the same pole. Consequently, both kinetochores bind to the spindle fibers to establish the same pole. This is the real difference between mitosis and meiosis as members of the each chromosome pair separate from each other in the next stage of meiosis that is anaphase 1. Two chromosomes and four chromatids in total from either parent can arrange on either side of the cell and produce the differences in chromosomal distribution in daughter cells after meiosis 1.

What is Metaphase 2?

Metaphase 2 is the second stage in meiosis 2 where each of the two daughter cells generated by the secondary gems cells. In this stage, the spindle again draws the chromosomes to the metaphase plate. Unlike metaphase 1 where two kinetochores of centromere bind to spindle fibers on same poles, here they bind from the opposite poles as happen in the case of mitotic metaphase and also attached to the kinetochore-microtubule coming from that pole. This, in the end, separates the sister chromatids of each chromosome during the anaphase 2. According to Harvard CyberBridge, “Metaphase 2 occurs after the prophase 2 and before anaphase 2 during overall meiosis 2 processes.”

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Key Differences between Metaphase 1 and Metaphase 2

  1. In metaphase 1, each pole receives half the number of chromosomes while in metaphase 2 have the same number of chromosomes but with a single chromatid.
  2. In metaphase 1, chromosomes are brought by the spindle fibers. In metaphase 2, after separation each chromatid becomes chromosome.
  3. In metaphase 1 of meiosis 1, homologous chromosomes are separated while in metaphase 2 of meiosis 2, sister chromatids are separated.
  4. In metaphase 1, two members of each bivalent repel each other and move towards the opposite poles. In metaphase 2, the centromere divides and two chromatids of each chromosome separate and move towards the poles.
  5. Metaphase 1 stage found in meiosis 1 stage that’s why known as metaphase 1, while metaphase 2 found in meiosis 1 that’s why known as metaphase 2.
  6. In metaphase 1, pairs of chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate while that are changed to metaphase 2 where only chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate.
  7. The plane of metaphase plate in metaphase 1 is perpendicular as compared to the plane of the metaphase plate in metaphase 2.
  8. In metaphase 1, chromosomes tetrads aligned on metaphase plate whereas, in metaphase 2, chromosomes arranged on metaphase plate as jus like in the mitosis with only sister chromatids.

Video Explanation

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