Type 1 Diabetes vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Key difference

The major difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes occurs due to decreased production of insulin mostly in the young adults while type 2 diabetes occurs due to development of resistance in the body tissues against insulin mostly in the advanced age people.

Advertisement - Continue Reading Below
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes

There are many differences in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The other name of type 1 diabetes is juvenile diabetes while type 2 diabetes is known as maturity-onset diabetes. The persons who have type 1 diabetes are thin lean typically while the persons suffering from type 2 diabetes are obese usually.  The patient also tells about significant weight loss in type 1 diabetes while there is no history of weight loss in type 2. The BMI of persons suffering from type 1 diabetes within the normal range or decreased while the BMI of the persons suffering from type 2 diabetes is above the normal limit.

Usually, there is no genetic or family history of diabetes in the patients suffering from type 1 diabetes while there is a strong family history of the patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. This occurs due to some genes which run in the family.

Advertisement - Continue Reading Below

The underlying mechanism of type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune mechanism which destroys the beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulin and thus insulin production is diminished. The underlying cause of type 2 diabetes is the resistance of body tissues against insulin. The production of insulin is normal in this type of diabetes. Insulin resistance may develop due to extra weight or sedentary lifestyle.

Type 1 diabetes is rapid in onset, and if the patient does not control the sugar level of blood, such patient presents acutely with ketoacidosis. Type 2 diabetes is gradual and slow in onset. sometimes it takes years to develop and often presents without early or acute symptoms.

Advertisement - Continue Reading Below

Warning signs of both types of diabetes resemble, i.e. extreme thirst and hunger, frequent urination, rapid weight loss, nausea , vomiting, weakness and fatigue and irritability. All  these symptoms occur in type 2 diabetes including blurred vision, skin infection, sore throat, itching on skin, the sensation of pins and needles on the body.

Investigations for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are same, i.e. HbA1c , Fasting plasma glucose test and oral glucose tolerance test. Random plasma glucose level may also be checked in certain conditions.

For the treatment of type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are given subcutaneously while for the treatment of type 2 diabetes certain drugs are given like biguanides (metformin), drugs of glimptin family, sulfonylurea drugs, acarbose, and SGLT4 inhibitors. No insulin is given in this type of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes can not be prevented because it is an autoimmune mechanism while type 2 diabetes can be delayed by adopting a healthy lifestyle, i.e. good diet and proper exercise.

Comparison Chart

BasisType 1 DiabetesType 2 Diabetes
Alternate nameJuvenile diabetesMaturity onset diabetes
Occurs inUsually occurs in young ageUsually occurs in advanced age
Physical appearance Physically the people suffering from this type appear thin leanPhysically the people suffering from this type appear obese
BMIThe BMI of the people in this type is either normal or less than normalThe BMI of this type is usually greater than the normal range
OnsetThe onset is rapidThe onset is gradual or slow
Underlying mechanism The underlying mechanism is autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulinThe underlying mechanism is the resistance developed by body cells against insulin mostly due to obesity
Family history Usually, there is no genetic or family history of diabetes in this typeThere is strong family history in this type due to genetic factors
Prevention Prevention from this type is not possible because the underlying mechanism is autoimmune destructionPrevention from this disease is possible by lifestyle modifications like weight control and proper exercise.
Warning symptoms Warning symptoms are extreme hunger, extreme thrust, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting and irritability.Warning symptoms of this type are the same as type 1 also some other symptoms like a sore throat, itching or tingling sensations on skin or skin infections
Treatment Treatment of this type is done by subcutaneous injections of insulinTreatment of this type is done by certain drugs like metformin, sulfonylureas, acarbose and SGLT4 inhibitors.
Advertisement - Continue Reading Below

What is type 1 diabetes?

The other name of type 1 diabetes is juvenile diabetes because it occurs in the young age classically. The aetiology of this disease is an autoimmune mechanism. Our immune system typically protects us from foreign invaders, but sometimes it attacks the own body tissues that actually happens in this case. The immune system attacks upon the beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone which suppresses the amount of glucose in the blood. It causes the glucose to come into the cells where it is produced for energy production of the cell. When insulin production is diminished, cells cannot utilize glucose for their normal functions. Glucose remains in the blood which causes hyperglycemia. The typical presentation of a patient with type 1 diabetes is a young aged thin lean person with no family history of diabetes. Since it is an autoimmune disorder, so it cannot be prevented. The management is done after the disease has expressed itself. Type 1 diabetes is controlled by the insulin injections which are given subcutaneously. Such patients remain dependant on insulin therapy throughout life.

What is type 2 Diabetes?

The other name of type 2 diabetes is maturity-onset diabetes because it occurs in the advanced age mostly after the age of 50 years. It has a strong genetic predisposition. It runs in the families because of certain genotypes. The aetiology of this disease is insulin resistance. The onset of this type of diabetes is gradual. There may be many reasons for insulin resistance, but obesity is the most common one. Due to excessive fat, cells do not respond to insulin. The production of insulin in normal. The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes are similar to type 1 diabetes, i.e. excessive thirst, hunger and urination. In this type of diabetes, itching on the skin and sore throat may also occur. The treatment of this type of insulin is done by certain drugs which reduce the glucose production in the body and improves the insulin resistance. Prevention of this type is possible. The onset can be delayed or prevented by lifestyle modifications like weight control, walk, exercise and proper food intake.

Key differences

  1. Type 1 diabetes occurs at a younger age while type 2 diabetes occurs in advanced age.
  2. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to decreased insulin production while type 2 occurs due to insulin resistance.
  3. Type 1 has no genetic predisposition while type 2 has a strong genetic predisposition.
  4. Prevention from type 1 diabetes is not possible because it is an autoimmune mechanism while prevention from type 2 diabetes can be done by lifestyle modifications.
  5. The onset of type 1 is sudden while type 2 diabetes is gradual in onset.
  6. Type 1 diabetes is treated with subcutaneous injections of insulin while type 2 is treated with certain drugs.
Advertisement - Continue Reading Below

Conclusion

Diabetes is a common disease which occurs throughout the world. It has two major types and some uncommon types. Often its major two types, i.e. type 1 and type 2 are confused with each other. The underlying mechanisms and treatment of both types are different. In the above article, we learnt the clear differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Advertisement - Continue Reading Below

Leave a Comment