The main difference between transcription and translation is, during the process of transcription RNA is synthesized from DNA and during the process of translation polypeptides or proteins are synthesized from RNA or messenger RNA. This messenger RNA contains the genetic information of the cell.
Definition of Transcription in DNA
Transcription is the process in which RNA is made from DNA template. In this process, the DNA code is changed into RNA code. The main purpose behind this process is to make multiple copies of RNA so that these copies could be used in biochemistry. Genes are used as a template and they produce several different functional forms of RNA. products of transcription include tRNA, mRNA, rRNA and micro RNA.
The main procedure of transcription is, a 5 primer cap is added, a 3 primer poly A tail is added and introns are spliced out during the process. Transcription occurs in the nucleus of the cell and the process starts when the RNA polymerase protein binds to the promoter in DNA and then a transcription in initiation complex is made. The exact location for the initiation of transcription is configured by this promoter. Termination of the process occurs when polymerase detaches from DNA and RNA transcript is released, then DNA obtains back its shape forming a double helix.
Definition of Translation in DNA
In translation, synthesis of proteins occur and these proteins are used for so many purposes. Proteins are made from mRNA template and in this process, the code in the mRNA is changed into an amino acid sequence in a protein. The translation is basically the second step of gene expression.
In translation, tRNA is used as a translator to produce protein and rRNA as an assembly plant. Phosphorylation id one of the post-translational modification which occurs in the process of translation. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell where bonds are made between amino acids and new growing chain.
Key Differences between Transcription and Translation In DNA
- Transcription occurs in nucleus and translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
- In transcription, RNA is made from DNA template. Synthesis of proteins occurs in translation.
- Transcription is inhibited by rifampicin, 8-hydroxyquinoline. The translation is inhibited by drugs like erythromycin, streptomycin, cycloheximide, tetracycline and many more.
- Transcription is found prokaryote’s cytoplasm and a eukaryote’s nucleus while translation is found in prokaryote’s cytoplasm and eukaryote’s ribosomes.
- An adapter molecule is not required in transcription but it is required in translation.
- The product formed in transcription requires splicing.
- Polymerase moves over the template in transcription.