Thee Thou Thy Thine

Thee, thou, thy, and thine are all words that are commonly seen in literature, particularly in works dating back to the Middle Ages and Renaissance. These archaic pronouns once served as the singular second person pronouns in English, but have since fallen out of use. Despite their archaic status, understanding the differences between these words can help readers better comprehend and enjoy older works of literature.

Thee, thou, thy, and thine all refer to the person being addressed in the second person, singular form. While they all have similar meanings, they are used in different contexts and have different grammatical forms.

The word “thou” typically appears as the subject of a sentence, replacing the modern “you”. For example, “Thou art kind” is equivalent to “You are kind”. Similarly, “thee” is used in place of “you” as an object of verbs or prepositions. “I gave thee a book” becomes “I gave you a book”. These are the most common uses of “thou” and “thee”, and often appear together. One thing to note is that neither “thou” nor “thee” are capitalized like their modern equivalents.

The words “thy” and “thine” are possessive forms of “thou”. “Thy” is used before a word beginning with a consonant, while “thine” is used before a word beginning with a vowel or “h”. For instance, “thy book” and “thine apple” correspond to the modern “your book” and “yours”, respectively.

While these words might seem interchangeable, they are not. It’s important to note that using the wrong word could indicate a significant change in meaning. For example, in Shakespeare’s play As You Like It, the character Orlando famously declares his love for Rosalind with the line “I love thee not for thy fair color” . If he had used “your” instead of “thy”, it would have suggested a more formal, respectful love rather than an intimate one.

So why did these words fall out of use? The use of “thou”, “thee”, “thy”, and “thine” in English began to decline around the 17th century. By the time of the 18th century, they were mostly replaced by “you” and “your”. This change occurred in part due to the influence of French, where there was no distinction between singular and plural forms of “you”. It was also due to the rise of social classes and the formalities associated with it. Using “thou” was seen as being intimate and informal, and using “you” was seen as more respectful and proper.

Despite their decline, these words still appear in literature today. They are often used in historical or fantasy fiction, or in modern works that are set in the past. Knowledge of these words can also help readers better appreciate and understand older works, such as the plays of Shakespeare or the poetry of John Donne.


Q: Are thee and thou the same thing?

A: No, they are not the same thing. “Thee” is an object pronoun, while “thou” is a subject pronoun.

Q: How do I know when to use “thy” or “thine”?

A: Use “thy” before a word that starts with a consonant and “thine” before a word that starts with a vowel or “h”. For example, “thy book” and “thine apple”.

Q: Why did these words fall out of use?

A: The use of “thou”, “thee”, “thy”, and “thine” declined around the 17th century due to the influence of French and the rise of social classes.

In conclusion, while modern English no longer uses the archaic pronouns “thee”, “thou”, “thy”, and “thine”, they remain a crucial part of the English language and are still used in works of literature today. Understanding these words can help readers better comprehend and appreciate older works, and can even enhance their enjoyment of modern literature with historical or fantasy settings.