The key difference between striated muscles and nonstriated muscles is that striated muscle fibers exhibit cross striations while nonstriated muscle fibers do not show cross striations.
Muscle tissues are concerned with the motion of the organisms and movements of other body parts. They are also termed as contractile tissues because movements occur due to the contraction of these muscles. Muscles are classified into three groups according to differences in their structure and function. They are striated muscles, non-striated muscles and cardiac muscles. Here we will discuss striated and non-striated muscles. Striated muscles are also called as striped muscles and cross-striations of muscle fibers are present in them. While on the other hand, non-striated muscles do not have cross striations of muscle fibers and they are termed as non-striated types depending upon this property.
Striated muscles are also called as skeletal muscles because they are attached with bones via tendons. Nonstriated muscles are not attached to muscles. They are found in hollow viscera and show a very smooth surface. Thus they are also called as smooth muscles.
Striated muscles can be controlled consciously, and thus they are also termed as voluntary muscles while nonstriated muscles cannot be controlled willingly. They are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. They are called involuntary muscles due to this property.
The muscle fiber length of striated muscles is very long. They have blunt ends and cylindrical shape while the length of muscle fibers of nonstriated muscles is also long, but they have pointed ends and spindle shape. Multiple nuclei are present in the muscle fiber cells of striated muscles while single nuclei are present in the muscle fiber cells of nonstriated muscles.
In striated type, sarcoplasmic reticulum is developed while in the nonstriated muscles, it is not well developed. Sarcomeres are present in the striated muscles while not present in the nonstriated muscles. Mitochondria and glycogen granules are abundantly present in the striated muscles while in the nonstriated muscles, usually one mitochondrion is present and glycogen granules are also less.
The examples of striated muscles can be given as bicep muscles, tricep muscles, quadriceps, hamstring muscles of the thigh and rectus muscle of abdomen while the examples of nonstriated muscles can be given as bladder muscles, bowel muscles, muscles of the rectum, small intestine, large intestine, stomach and gall bladder, etc.
|Basis||Striated Muscle||Non-Striated Muscle|
|Definition||These are those types of muscles in which muscle fibers exhibit cross striations.||These are those types of muscles in which muscle fibers do not exhibit cross striations.|
|Conscious control||They can be controlled consciously, so they are also called voluntary muscles.||They cannot be controlled consciously, so they are called involuntary muscles.|
|Found where||They are attached with bones via tendons. So they are also termed as skeletal muscles.||They are not attached to bones. They are found in hollow organs and have a smooth surface. So they are also called as smooth muscles.|
|Muscle fibers shape||Muscle fibers have blunt ends and show a cylindrical shape. They are very long.||Muscle fibers have pointed ends and exhibit fusiform or spindle shape. They are also long.|
|Mitochondria and glycogen granules||The muscle fiber cells have an abundant number of mitochondria and glycogen granules.||The muscle fiber cells do not have abundant glycogen granules or mitochondria.|
|Number of nuclei||The muscle fiber cells have multiple nuclei.||Muscle fiber cells have a single nucleus in a cell.|
|Sarcoplasmic reticulum||They contain well developed sarcoplasmic reticulum.||Their sarcoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed.|
|Sarcomere presence||They have sarcomeres which are their contractile unit.||They do not have sarcomeres.|
|Examples||Their examples can be given as bicep muscles, tricep muscles, rectus muscles of abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring muscles of thigh and muscles of the shoulder girdle, etc.||Their examples can be given as muscles of the urinary bladder, small intestine, muscles of the large intestine, muscles of stomach and gall bladder, etc.|
What is Striated Muscle?
They are those types of muscles in which muscle fibers show cross striations. They are also called voluntary muscles because they can be controlled consciously according to the will of the animal. Locomotion and movements of the body parts take place by the contraction of these muscles.
They are also named as skeletal muscles because they are attached with bones via tendons. Tendon is the tissue which connects the bone with a muscle. It is a white colored elongated band. Striated muscle fibers have multiple nuclei per cell.
They also exhibit numerous mitochondria and abundant glycogen granules in the cell because they need much energy for the contraction which is achieved by aerobic metabolism, but they also have the ability to get energy by anaerobic metabolism when oxygen is not actively supplied or when there is a high demand for energy. Their contractile unit is sarcomere which is actually the area between two adjacent Z lines.
They contract by sliding the filaments of adjacent muscles fibers. These contractions are explained according to the sliding filament model. The shape of muscle fibers of striated muscles is spindle shape, and they exhibit blunt ends. The examples of the striated type of muscles can be given as bicep muscles, triceps, quadriceps, hamstrings, muscles of the shoulder girdle and rectus muscle of abdomen, etc.
What is Non-Striated Muscle?
These are those types of muscles in which muscle fibers do not show cross striations. They are involuntary muscles because they cannot be controlled willingly; rather they are under the control of the autonomic nervous system.
They are found in the hollow viscera of the body. They exhibit a very smooth surface, and that is the reason for naming them smooth muscles. The muscle fibers of these types of muscles do not have abundant glycogen granules. They have a single nucleus per cell. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is usually poorly developed, and they do not have abundant mitochondria.
They show slow contractions usually. The shape of muscle fibers of nonstriated muscles is of spindle type, and they have pointed or tapered ends. The examples can be given as muscles of the small intestine, muscles of the large intestine, muscles of the stomach, urinary bladder and gall bladder, etc.
- Striated muscles exhibit cross-striations of muscle fibers while nonstriated muscles do not exhibit the cross striations.
- Striated muscles are under the conscious control of the animal while nonstriated muscles are not under conscious control.
- The shape of muscle fibers of striated muscles is cylindrical while that of nonstriated muscles is fusiform or spindle shape.
- Striated types of muscles have an abundant number of mitochondria and numerous glycogen granules while nonstriated muscles have less number of mitochondria and glycogen granules.
- Striated muscles are attached with bones via tendons while nonstriated muscles are found in hollow viscera.
Striated muscles and nonstriated muscles are two types of muscles which have various differences in their shape, function, and structure. It is compulsive for biology students to know the major differences between these two types of muscles. In the above article, we came to know the clear differences between striated and nonstriated muscles.