Centralization and decentralization are two words, which describe the whole system of government, prevailing in any country. In some countries there is policy or rule to share the power and authority with below authorities while in some countries central government keeps the all authorities in its hands. There are some factors, which differentiate state government and central government from each other.
What is State Government?
The state government is a federal form of government, which shares political power with the local or sub-national governments according to the constitution of the country or state. This form of government system mostly denotes to country subdivisions, which are widely known as states. However, to some extent it also relates to Asian countries in which there is a province system. Australia, the United States of America, Pakistan, India, South Africa, etc. are examples of state government because in these countries there are proper provincial levels or local level government systems below state government.
What is Central Government?
Central Government is like a unitary state or non-federal government, which enjoys distinct powers and authorities. As the word ‘central’ is describing that in this government system, controls and authorities regarding decision-making rest at the central place. The structure of the central government varies in different countries. In some countries central government delegates power of governing at regional or local level to run the specific region. The usual responsibilities of the central government are to ensuring the basic needs of citizens, maintaining national security and exercising international diplomacy. France government, Denmark government, People’s Republic of China government, United Kingdom, Spain government, etc. are examples of the central government.
- Central government controls most of the authorities and power in its hands and it is up to its will whether it wants to delegate power authority or not. While in state government system there is hierarchy of power system from state level to provinces or local level.
- Central government performs responsibilities regarding national security and international diplomacy while state government deals with law and order and development situations.
- In every year budget, central government is bound to share the revenue with sate government or provinces to meet the expenses of next year.
- Power and authority system of the central government is wholly based on centralization while in countries where there are state government shows that there is decentralization of power and authorities in those countries.