The key difference between solid, liquid and gas is that solid is a state of matter with tightly packed particles in a specific shape while liquid has loosely packed particles without any specific shape whereas gas has freely moving particles and covers the shape of the container in which it is enclosed.
Everything in this universe that has mass and occupies space is known as matter. In other words, everything around us, such as plants, animals, water, food, vehicles and clothes etc. is matter. The matter is composed of tiny particles such as atoms, groups of atoms or molecules and ions etc. According to the physical characteristics of these tiny particles, the matter is divided into three states, i.e. solid, liquid and gas. If the tiny particles are tightly bound together and form a rigid structure with proper shape, then it will be the solid state of matter, e.g. Ice, Apple etc. The liquid is a state of matter that has particles that are loosely bound and do not have a specific shape, but it has a specific volume, e.g. water, juices etc. Gas is made up of freely moving particles and covers almost all the available space easily. It does not have a specific shape and volume, e.g. methane gas etc.
|Definition||A state of matter that has strongly bonded particles is known as solid.||A state of matter with loosely bond particles is known as a liquid.||A state of matter with freely moving particles is known as gas.|
|Bonding||Solid particles have strong bonding between them.||Liquid particles have lose bonding between them.||Gas particles have no bonding between them.|
|Shape||It has a specific shape.||It does not have a specific shape.||It does not have a specific shape.|
|Volume||It has a specific volume.||It has a specific volume too.||It does not have a specific volume.|
|Energy||It has the lowest energy.||It has a medium energy level.||It has the highest energy.|
|Arrangement of particles||It has regular and closely arranged particles.||It has random and little sparsely arranged particles.||It has random and more sparsely arranged particles.|
|Compressibility||It is very difficult to compress a solid.||The liquid is less difficult to compress.||Gas is very easy to compress.|
|Fluidity||It cannot flow.||It can flow from higher to the lower level.||It can flow in all directions.|
|Motion of particles||Its particles have negligible motion.||Its particles have more motion than solid particles.||Its particles have free and random motion.|
|Intermolecular space||It has minimum Intermolecular spaces||It has more Intermolecular spaces as compared to solid.||It has large Intermolecular spaces|
|Storage||The container is not required to store solid.||The liquid cannot be stored without a container.||Gas needs a closed container to be stored.|
What is Solid?
A solid is a rigid state of matter that retains its density and shape when not confined. It has strong force of attraction between its molecules. So, It has a little or minimum intermolecular space. Particles are bound tightly and found closed together to form a specific shape. Its particles have negligible motion, Solid is very difficult to compress, and it cannot flow. It has a specific volume and does not require any container to store it. E.g. Banana, table, Car etc.
What is Liquid?
The liquid is a freely moving substance of constant or specific volume. It is that state of matter that has random and loosely arranged particles. The liquid has low forces of attraction between its molecules. So, it has more intermolecular spaces and does not has any specific shape. It is nearly difficult to compress liquid due to little gaps between molecules, but it can flow easily from higher concentration to lower concentration. The container is required to store liquid. E.g. water, juices, milk etc.
What is Gas?
Gas is a state of matter with random and freely moving particles. Force of attraction between gas particles or molecules is almost negligible. So, they move freely and have very large intercellular spaces between them. That is why it does not have a specific shape and volume. It forms the shape of the container in which it is enclosed. A closed container is required to store gas. It is very easy to compress a gas due to large spaces between its molecule. Moreover, it can flow easily due to the weak force of attraction between its molecules. E.g. Methane gas
Key Differences between Solid and Liquid and Gas
- A rigid state of matter with a maximum force of attraction between its molecules is called solid while liquid has the medium type of intermolecular attraction whereas gas has a minimum or no force of attraction between its molecules.
- Solid has a specific shape and volume while liquid has no any specific shape but has specific volume and gas has no any specific shape and volume.
- There is very little space between particles of solid while liquid has little space between its particles whereas gas particles have lots of space between them
- Solid is tough to compress, but the liquid is less difficult as compared to solid whereas gas is very easy to compress.
- Solid cannot flow but liquid can flow easily from higher concentration to lower concentration and gas can flow in all directions.
- Solid does not require any container to be stored while the liquid is stored in container whereas gas required a closed container to be stored.
From the above discussion, it is concluded that solid is a rigid state of matter with specific shape and volume while liquid is a flowing substance without any specific shape but has specific volume whereas gas has freely moving particles without any specific shape and volume.