The main difference between mitosis and meiosis is that mitosis is the type of cell division which takes place in somatic cells for growth or for asexual reproduction in some organisms while meiosis is the type of reproduction which takes place in sex cells for the intention of sexual reproduction.
Both mitosis and meiosis are the types of cell division. During mitosis, a cell divides to form two daughter cells while during meiosis, a cell divides to form four daughter cells. The number of chromosomes remain the same in the daughter cells in mitosis while the number of chromosomes becomes half in the daughter cells in meiosis. The half number of chromosomes is called a haploid number of chromosome in which chromosomes are not in the form of pairs. While when chromosomes are present in the form of pairs, they are called a diploid number of chromosomes.
The stages of mitosis include prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase while the phases of meiosis occur in two steps. Meiosis 1 and meiosis 2. All the four phases, i.e., prophase1, metaphase1, anaphase1 and telophase 1 occur in meiosis 1, and then they are repeated in the same sequence in meiosis 2. No genetic variation takes place during mitosis. The daughter cells are 100% identical to the parent cell while genetic variation takes place during meiosis because synapsis takes place in the non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes.
Chromosomes do not pair together in mitosis while paring of chromosomes and crossing over (transfer of genetic material) takes place in meiosis that results in genetic mutations. During mitosis, nuclear division (karyokinesis) occurs during interphase and division of cytoplasm (cytokinesis) takes place during telophase while in the process of meiosis, nuclear division occurs in interphase 1 and cytokinesis takes place in both telophase 1 and telophase 2. Prophase (phase before cell division occurring) is of short duration in mitosis. It continues for only a few hours, and it is a simple process while prophase of meiosis lasts for many days and very complicated.
The functions of mitosis are, cellular growth, body healing, and repair in case of an injury and asexual reproduction. The functions of meiosis are gamete formation in the sexual reproduction in all the sexually reproducing higher animals. The compulsive task is to maintain the number of chromosomes in the next progeny.
Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis
|Definition||It is a type of cell division which takes place in somatic cells, and each parent cell divides to form two daughter cells.||It is a type of cell division which occurs in germline cells, and each parent cell divides to form four daughter cells.|
|Number of chromosomes in the daughter cells||A number of chromosome remains the same in the daughter cells.||A number of chromosomes become half in the daughter cells.|
|Which types of chromosomes formed||Paired chromosomes (diploid number) is present in daughter cells.||Unpaired chromosomes (haploid number) present in the daughter cells.|
|Crossing over||Crossing over and chiasmata formation does not take place.||Chiasmata formation and crossing over takes place and exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes is carried out.|
|Genetic variation||No genetic variation in the progeny cells. Daughter cells are identical to parent cell.||The marked genetic variation takes place. Daughter cells are markedly different from the parent cell.|
|Phases||It occurs in four phases, i.e., prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.||The process of meiosis is further divided into meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 phases. Each has all the four phases; thus it completes in eight phases.|
|Function||The function of mitosis is growth in the somatic cells, healing, and regeneration at the site of injury and defect and asexual reproduction in the lower organisms.||The function of meiosis is to carry sexual reproduction in the higher animals. The main function is to maintain the number of chromosomes in the next generation.|
What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is a type of cell division that occurs in somatic cells in which each parent cell divides to form two daughter cells. The number of chromosomes remains the same in the daughter cells. A diploid number of chromosome is present in the parent as well as daughter cells.
Normally mitosis occurs in our nails and hair throughout our life. It also takes place during growth, and once the full growth has been achieved, it stops. It also functions to heal the wound and regenerate any defect in the body. Mitosis takes place in four phases, i.e., prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, preparations for the cell division are carried out. Enzymes are synthesized, and energy is stored. DNA replication and nucleus division (karyokinesis) also takes place during this phase. Nuclear material is present in the form of chromatin. Then during metaphase, chromosomes are arranged in the equator line. During anaphase, chromatids are separated from each other and move towards the peripheral site. During telophase, a division of cytoplasm also takes place (cytokinesis), and thus one cell is converted to two daughter cells having the identical genetic material and the same number of chromosomes.
What is Meiosis?
It is a type of cell division in which one parent cell is divided into four daughter cells, and the number of chromosomes in daughter cells is half than the number in the parent’s cells. It is carried out in germline cells for sexual reproduction in the higher animals.
The main aim of this type of division to maintain the number of chromosome constant in the next generation and to carry out genetic variability. During this type of division, paring between homologous chromosomes occurs, and non-sister chromatids exchange genetic material with each other via synapsis formation and crossing over. Chiasmata are also formed during this process. Meiosis is carried out in two stages, i.e., meiosis 1 and meiosis 2. Phases of meiosis 1 are prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1 and telophase 1. Phases of meiosis 2 are prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2 and telophase 2.
Key Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
- Mitosis is the type of cell division in which each daughter cell divides to form two daughter cells while in meiosis, four daughter cells are formed by a single
- Mitosis is carried out by somatic cells while meiosis takes place in germline cells.
- In mitosis, a number of chromosomes are constant in the daughter cells while in meiosis the number of chromosomes is reduced to half.
- In mitosis, no crossing over and transfer of genetic material occurs while in meiosis transfer of genetic material occurs via crossing over.
- The aim of mitosis is growth and healing while that of meiosis is sexual reproduction.
Mitosis and meiosis are the types of cell division. It is compulsive for biology students to know the difference between them. In the above article, we learned clear differences between mitosis and meiosis.