Mitochondria vs. Chloroplast

The difference between mitochondria and chloroplast is that mitochondria are present in all types of cells including plant and animal cells while chloroplast is present only in the plant cells. They are absent in the animal cells.

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mitochondria vs chloroplast

There are many differences between mitochondria and chloroplast, but one main difference is that chloroplast is a pure plant cell organelle while mitochondria are found in all types of cells. Both are double membranous structures. Mitochondria are present in all types of eukaryotic cells while chloroplast is present in the green plant, green algae and protists, e.g. Euglena. The shape of mitochondria is oblong or bean-shaped, but it tends to change its shape. The shape of the chloroplast is ellipsoid or disc-shaped.

The inner surface of mitochondria has a greater surface area than chloroplast because its inner surface has numerous folds called cristae. The inner surface of the chloroplast is very complex. It has many thylakoid sacks which are stacked upon each other and joined from each other by stromal lamella. Chlorophyll is found in these stacks. A semi-fluid is present around the stacks and stromal lamella which is known as the stroma. Numerous respiratory enzymes are found in mitochondria which are specific for its functions. Such respiratory enzymes are not found in the chloroplast.

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Mitochondria convert organic matter to ATP which is the energy currency of the cell. While chloroplast carries the reaction of photosynthesis during which glucose is produced using carbon dioxide and water using sunlight in the presence of chlorophyll. Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of the cell. The chloroplast is green colored organelle because of the presence of a green pigment called chlorophyll while mitochondria have no color. Mitochondria is a double-chambered organelle. Its chambers are known as cristae and matrix. Chloroplast are also double chambered. Its chambers are known as thylakoid and stroma.

Mitochondria consume oxygen while chloroplast releases oxygen and consumes carbon dioxide. Mitochondria releases energy by the breakdown of organic matter using oxygen while chloroplast stores energy in the form of glucose. Reactions which occur in mitochondria are oxidative phosphorylation, beta-oxidation and respiration while reactions that take place in chloroplast are photorespiration and photosynthesis. The diameter of the mitochondria ranges from 0.75 to 3um. It covers almost 25% of the volume of the cell. While the diameter of the chloroplast is 5um and its width is 2.5um.

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Comparison Chart

BasisMitochondriaChloroplast
DefinitionMitochondria is a cell organelle found in all types of cells.The chloroplast is a cell organelle which is found in the only green leafy plant, green algae and protists.
Structure It is double membranous. Its inner chamber is folded to form cristae.It is also double membranous. Its inner chamber has many thylakoid sacks which are stacked upon each other.
ShapeIt is oblong or bean-shaped organelle.It is a disc-shaped or ellipsoid organelle.
EnzymesMany respiratory enzymes are present in it.No respiratory type of enzymes is found in it.
Surface areaIts inner surface area is greater due to folds in the inner surface.Its inner surface area is comparatively less.
Names of chambersIts 2 chambers are known as cristae and matrix.Its 2 chambers are knowns as stroma and thylakoid.
Colour It has no color.It has a green color due to the presence of green pigment, chlorophyll.
Oxygen production or liberation It consumes oxygen to produce energy for the cell.It liberates oxygen using carbon dioxide and water for glucose synthesis.
Energy It liberates energy in the form of ATP.It stores energy in the form of glucose.
Diameter Its diameter is 0.75 to 3um.Its diameter is 5 to 10um, and its width is 2.5um.
Reactions that take placeReactions that take place in it are respiration, beta-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation.Reactions that take place in it are photosynthesis and photorespiration.

What is Mitochondria?

Mitochondria is an organelle which is present in all of the eukaryotic cells. It has its own DNA and ribosome. Since both of the things are present in bacteria too so, it is believed that mitochondria came into existence in the result of endosymbiosis of bacteria with a eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria are actually the powerhouse of the cell. It is the place where energy is generated from organic matter using oxygen with the help of certain respiratory enzymes. The process of this energy generation is called respiration.

Mitochondria have two membranes. Both are composed of lipids and proteins as the cell membrane. The outer membrane is smooth while the inner membrane is folded to form cristae which increase the surface area of the inner surface called the matrix. Many reactions take place in mitochondria like oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation and respiration.

It is interesting to know that mitochondria in a newborn are inherited from its mother. Its reason is that when fertilization occurs, the mitochondria present in the sperm cell is destroyed by certain enzymes, so mitochondria present in the maternal egg is transferred next to the zygote. This fact provides the base for research relating to the mitochondrial-related disease which has been inherited maternally.

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Mitochondria maybe a few to hundreds in a cell depending upon the energy need of the cell. One exception is that mitochondria are not found in mature red blood cells. Their diameter is 0.75 to 3um.

What is Chloroplast?

Chloroplast are also double membranous organelle present exclusively in green leafy plants and green algae and some protists. They also have their own DNA and ribosomes, so they are also believed to be originated in the result of endosymbiosis of bacteria with eukaryotic cells.

In this organelle, thylakoid sacs are present which stack upon each other. Many stacks are connected with each other via stromal lamella. Many stacks connected with each other are termed as grana (singular granum). The green color of the chloroplast is due to the presence of green pigment chlorophyll. Chloroplast takes part in the reaction of photosynthesis during which glucose is produced in plants using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. Thus chloroplast is mandatory for the survival of autotrophs.

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Their diameter is 5 to 10um, and their width is 2.5um.

 

Key Differences

  1. Mitochondria are a type of organelle present in all of the eukaryotic cells while chloroplast is present only in the green leafy plant, green algae and protists.
  2. The two chambers of mitochondria are cristae and matrix while those of chloroplast are thylakoid and stroma.
  3. The inner surface area of mitochondria is greater than chloroplast.
  4. Photosynthesis and photorespiration take place in chloroplast while respiration, oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation take place in mitochondria.
  5. Mitochondria generate energy for the cell during chloroplast store energy in the form of glucose
  6. Mitochondria use oxygen for their functions during chloroplast release oxygen.
  7. The diameter of mitochondria is 0.75 to 3um while that of the chloroplast is 5 to 10um.

Conclusion

Mitochondria and chloroplast both are the organelles having a double membrane. They have key importance for the functions of the cell. Both organelles are related to the energy generation of the cell. So it is compulsive to know the differences between them. In the above article, we knew the clear differences between mitochondria and chloroplast.

Video Explanation

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