Male Reproductive System vs. Female Reproductive System

The most important anatomical and  physiological difference between male and female reproductive system that male reproductive system is located outside the body and destined to produce sperms which are transferred to the female body while the female reproductive system is located inside the body and produces ovum which meets with sperms to produce a baby.

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Male Reproductive System vs. Female Reproductive System

The difference between the male and female reproductive system can be narrated in the sense that anatomical location of the male reproductive system is outside the body while the female reproductive system is located inside the body of the female. The location of the male reproductive system is outside the body because sperms are produced by the male reproductive system which needs the temperature less than normal human body temperature for their production and maturation. The gametes produced by the female reproductive system are ova or eggs which does not require the less temperature than the normal body temperature for their reproduction.

Gonads in the male and females are testis and ovaries respectively while gametes in males
are sperms and In females are eggs or ova.

The female reproductive system works in a cyclic way, i.e. the cycle starts with the
menstruation, during which the endometrium (inner layer of the uterus) regresses and shed off, after this phase, the blood supply to the endometrium starts to increase, it becomes thickened and richly vascularized. The egg is released in the middle of the cycle.
At this phase, if fertilization does not occur, blood supply to the endometrium starts to decline and at the end of cycle blood supply is so compromised that it starts shedding, bleeding starts and a new cycle begins. On the other hand, the male reproductive system works in a linear manner, i.e. sperms continue to produce and release via ejaculation.

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The male reproductive system produces sperms and transfers it to the female body in the
form of semen while female reproductive organs produce ovum (egg) which is
fertilized by the sperm to produce the embryo. The male reproductive system contains penis, scrotum, seminal vesicle, vas deference, prostate and cowper’s glands while female reproductive system contains Labia majora , labia minora, vulva , vagina, clitoris, urethra, hymen, perineum, cervix, fallopian tubes, overies anaad uterus.

Important hormones produced by the male reproductive system are  testosterone and androgen while hormones produced by the female reproductive system are estrogen,progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

In the male reproductive system, average one billion sperms are shed over the period of one month, and 40 to 120 million sperms are released during one ejaculation in a healthy person. While in the females, a newborn baby girl contains 1 million oogonia which are declined up to 400,000 to 500,000 on reaching to puberty. In the females, only one egg is produced and matured from oogoniaa in one month which is enough for fertility while the man is considered fertile when he produces 20 to 80 million sperms in one ejaculation.

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Both male and female inn human beings contain 23 pairs of chromosomes among them, 22 pairs of chromosomes are same. 23rdone is different which is of sex chromosome. In males,this pair of sex chromosomes contains X and Y chromosomes while in females it contains both X chromosomes. If X chromosome of the female is fertilized by the sperm having X chromosome, the newborn will be the female baby. If X chromosome of the female is fertilized by the Y chromosome containing sperm, the newborn will be a male baby. Thus in human beings, male plays the sex determining part for the next generation.

The role of the male reproductive system is to provide sperms only to the female while the female reproductive system not only makes the eggs(Ova) rather accomplish fertilization, support and development of growing embryo via amniotic fluid and provide it nourishment and immunity via the placenta.

Life of sperm on average is 2 to 5 days in the female body while the life of an egg is 12 to 24
hours.

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Problems affecting the male reproductive system are testicular injury, varicocele,testicular injury, epididymitis, hydrocele, inguinal hernia, sexuallytransmitted diseases and autoimmune diseases. While diseases affecting thefemale reproductive system are dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, polycystic ovariandisease, ectopic pregnancy non menstrual vaginal bleeding, ovarian cysts,ovarian tumors, candidiasis and toxic shock syndrome.

Comparison chart

BasisMale Reproductive SystemFemale Reproductive System
Location The male reproductive system is present outside the body. The female reproductive system is present inside the body.
Gonad and Gametes Gonads and gametes are testis and sperms respectively. Gonads and gametes are ovaries and ova or eggs respectively.
Temperature Requirement Sperms require a body temperature less than the normal body temperature for their production and development. Eggs require the normal body temperature for their normal production and fertilization.
Number of Gametes Produced In males, 40 to 120 million sperms are released in one ejaculation with an average of one billion sperms in a month. In females, one egg is produced in one month on average.
Method of Production In males, sperm production and release a linear process. In females, egg production is a cyclic process.
Major Parts Major parts of the male reproductive system are penis, scrotum, vas deference, seminal vesicle and Cowper’s gland. Major parts in female reproductive system are Labia majora, labia minora, vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, uterus and perineum.
Function The role of the male reproductive system is to produce male gametes and transfer them to the female body. It not only produces female gametes but also accomplish fertilization, growth and development of the embryo. 
Sex Determination Male gametes play the sex-determining part in humans. Female gametes do not play the sex-determining part in humans. 
Lifetime A lifetime of sperms is 2 to 5 days in the female body.A lifetime of an egg is 12 to24 hours in the female body.
Hormones Hormones secreted by the male reproductive system are testosterone and androgen. Hormones secreted by the female reproductive system are estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH.
Problems affecting Fertility Problems affecting the male reproductive system are varicocele, hydrocele, testicular injury, inguinal hernia, epididymitis, sexually transmitted diseases and autoimmune diseases. Diseases affecting the female reproductive system are dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, polycystic ovarian disease, ovarian tumors, endometriosis, bleeding without ovulation, ectopic pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and autoimmune diseases.

What is the male reproductive system?

The basic function of the male reproductive system in humans and sexually reproducing animals is to produce sperms and transfer them to the female’s body for reproduction. The male reproductive system consists of penis, scrotum or testis, epididymis, prostate gland, vas deference and Cowper’s gland. The temperature required for normal sperm production and maturation is 2 to 3 degree less than normal body temperature,that’s why sperm production and ejaculation occurs outside the body in the testis which is covered by a thick pad offat for the purpose of insulation. In the males, sperms continue to produce and ejaculate in the form of semen (sperms mixed with the secretion of glands is called semen) in a linear way. One sperm becomes mature in approximately 2months and then releases. One ejaculate contains 40 million to 120 million sperms in a healthy male while 20 to 80 million sperms are required althoughonly one sperm fertilizes one egg. For fertility per ejaculate in men. Average1 billion sperms are released in a healthy male in one month.

Sperm can remain alive for 2 to 5 days in the body of the female. It means sperm can fertilize the egg 2 to 5 days after its deposition in the female body. Testosterone is a hormone produced in the body of males which is important for the production of sperms. Deficiency of this hormone production leads to decreased production or not the production of sperms, a condition called oligospermia or azospermia respectively leading to infertility. Androgen hormones also play an important role in primary and secondary male sex characteristics. Other diseases which can affect male reproductive system are epididymitis, hydrocele, inguinal hernia, prostate cancer and sexually transmitted diseases etc. in human beings, two types of sex chromosomes are produced in males, i.e. X and Y chromosome. If Y chromosome having sperm fertilizes an egg, a male baby is produced. If an X chromosome ha having sperm fertilizes the egg, a female baby will be produced. Thus nature has given the sex-determining power to the males in humans (opposite the o birds in which female has sex-determining power).

What is the female reproductive system

The female reproductive system is necessary for the existence of species of sexually reproducing organisms. It not only produces female gametes but also accomplishes fertilization, conception, development and maturation of embryo, provision of nourishment and immunity to the developing fetus. Female gonads are ovaries and gametes are eggs or ova (single ovum). The entire female system is located inside the body. Important parts are vagina, cervix, clitoris, labia majora, labia minora, ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus.

Uterus consists of 3 layers of muscles. Endometrium, myometrium and serosa or perimetrium. Endometrium gets prepared for fertilization by increasing its blood supply and converting itself into a thickened muscular coat up to the middle of the female reproductive cycle. If fertilization takes place, a zygote is implanted in the posterior wall of uterus and menstruation does not take place. If fertilization fails to take place until the middle of the female cycle, endometrium starts regressing, bleeding goes on, and a new cycle is started.

For the female fertility, only egg production is necessary for contrast to males in which millions of sperms are produced. In the females, estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are mandatory for fertility.

Both of females’ sex chromosomes are X chromosomes. Thus nature has  not given the power of sex determination to the females in human beings.

Diseases which may affect the female reproductive system are, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, an ovulatory cycle, endometriosis, poly cystic ovarian disease, ovarian tumors, endometrial fibroids, sexually transmitted diseases and autoimmune diseases.

Key differences

  1. Anatomical location of the male reproductive system is outside the body because it requires the temperature less than normal body temperature for sperm production while that of the female reproductive system is inside the body because it does not require low temperature for egg production.
  2. The aim of the male reproductive system is to produced sperms and transfer to the female body while that of the female reproductive system is to produce egg, fertilization, development and nourishment of the embryo.
  3. Major parts of the male reproductive system are penis, scrotum, vas deference, seminal vesicle and cowper’s gland while those of female systems are vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.
  4. Millions of sperms are produced in a healthy male in one month while only one egg is produced in a healthy female in one month.
  5. Nature has given males sex determining power in the humans while that is not given to the females.

Conclusion

Reproduction is the basic feature of living things. Reproduction may be of the sexual type in which gametes from 2 partners meet and give rise to the new individual or asexual type in which new individual is reproduced by a single parent. In the human beings, sexual type of reproduction occurs, so in this context, we learnt about the difference between male and female reproduction system.

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